CVIndependent

Wed02212018

Last updateWed, 27 Sep 2017 1pm

In January 2018, mornings are when most of the action takes place. The predawn sky hosts as many as four planets, including close pairings—Mars-Jupiter on Jan. 4-9, and Mercury-Saturn on Jan. 11-14.

Also: January has two full moons! Follow the waning moon mornings in first half of month, and watch it pass the four planets—Mars-Jupiter on Jan. 11, and Mercury-Saturn on Jan. 14 and 15.

Finally, don’t miss the total lunar eclipse on Jan. 31!

Evenings offer no naked-eye planets, but they do offer a waxing moon Jan. 17-30, and an uncommonly large number of bright stars with the appearance of Sirius, the brilliant “Dog Star” in the east-southeast.

Our New Year starts out with a “Supermoon,” the closest of 2018. As seen from Palm Springs, the full moon on Jan. 1 rises as the sun sets, at 4:49 p.m. A few minutes later, look for the huge disk of the moon resting on the horizon in the east-northeast. The moon will be up all night, setting at 7:17 a.m. on Jan. 2, some 26 minutes after sunrise.

Despite the full moon of Jan. 1 being the closest of the year, it is not the brightest. Brightest-moon honors for 2018 go to the next full moon, on the morning of Wednesday, Jan. 31. That moon’s greatest brilliance will occur just before the eclipse, when the moon is just outside of Earth’s shadow and reflecting the greatest amount of light our way. During the total eclipse itself, we’ll also experience the faintest full moon of the year, cut off from direct sunlight by the Earth’s shadow.

Here is your guide to the “blue” moon (the second full moon of a calendar month, by one definition) and total lunar eclipse, on the night of Tuesday, Jan. 30, and Wednesday, Jan. 31. Keep in mind that because of the mountains surrounding the Coachella Valley, rising times may be later and setting times may be earlier than the “ideal” times listed here. From many locations in the valley, the later stages of the lunar eclipse might be hidden behind mountains to the west.

If you can allot just a small amount of time to watch the eclipse, be in a dark place on Wednesday morning, Jan. 31, between 4:20 a.m. (the moon halfway into umbra) and 5:30 a.m. (mid-totality, when the moon in deepest eclipse). Dress warmly!

On Tuesday, Jan. 30, from Palm Springs, moonrise occurs at 4:37 p.m., with sunset at 5:16 p.m. Does the rising moon seem unusually large to you? It was closest to Earth earlier on Jan. 30, around 2 a.m. By 5:45 p.m., the moon is 12 degrees up in east-northeast to east, and Sirius, the brightest star, will be nearly 45 degrees farther to the right, in the east-southeast to southeast.

As twilight deepens, the entire Winter Hexagon becomes visible. Astronomical twilight ends at 6:41 p.m., and the sky in this brightly moonlit night will get no darker until the eclipse gets underway. As twilight ends, note Pollux 15 degrees above and a little left of the moon, and his twin, Castor, 4.5 degrees to the upper left of Pollux. By 7:30 p.m., the star Regulus, heart of Leo, is 10 degrees up, just north of east, and 24 degrees to the lower left of the moon.

In the hour between 10 and 11 p.m., use binoculars or a telescope to try to catch the Beehive star cluster—then a difficult target in a bright sky, only 2 degrees north of the full moon. We’ll have a very good look at the Beehive during tonight’s total lunar eclipse! By 11:15 p.m., the bright, golden orange star Arcturus is 10 degrees up in the east-northeast.

At 11:45 p.m., the moon reaches its high point in the sky, 16 degrees south of overhead. Notice how short your shadow is. By midnight, the star Spica in Virgo is 12 degrees up in the east-southeast. You can use the curved handle of the Big Dipper to locate Arcturus and Spica.

If you can still see Aldebaran above the mountains to your west at 12:38 a.m. (22 degrees up in the west), then from the same location, you will be able to view the moon at the start of total eclipse at 4:52 a.m.—because the totally eclipsed moon will very closely follow Aldebaran’s track across the sky, but nearly 4 1/2 hours later. If Aldebaran still appears above the mountains at 1:15 a.m., then you will be able to view the moon during its deepest total eclipse later that morning, at 5:30 a.m. If Aldebaran is still visible at 1:52 a.m., then from the same site you may be able to observe the moon at the end of total eclipse, at 6:08 a.m., provided the shadowed moon is bright enough to be seen in the brightening twilight.

At 1:52 a.m., can you spot Vega, only 4 degrees up in the northeast? For the rest of the night, it climbs higher, while Rigel, Aldebaran, Sirius and Betelgeuse will all set before 3:30 a.m., before the moon begins to enter the umbra, or dark central core of Earth’s shadow at 3:48 a.m.

By 2 a.m., bright Jupiter will be 10 degrees up in the east-southeast and 27 degrees to the lower left of Spica.

At 2:51 a.m., the moon will just begin to enter the penumbra, or outermost, lightest part of Earth’s shadow. At that time, with the moon’s disk just outside the shadow, the moon appears at peak brilliance, because it’s closest to being directly opposite to the sun without being in shadow. The outer portion of the penumbra is not detectable, and so duskiness at the moon’s eastern (upper left) edge won’t be noted for perhaps another half hour.

By 3:30 a.m., the penumbral darkening on the moon’s upper left edge will be noticeable. At that time, find Jupiter 25 degrees up in the southeast, and Mars 12 degrees to Jupiter’s lower left. Look for the red supergiant star Antares, heart of the Scorpion, within 9 degrees below Mars.

At 3:48 a.m., the moon begins to enter the umbra, or dark central core of the Earth’s shadow. The moon will then be nearly due west, 35 degrees up. Within a few minutes, a dark, noticeably curved circular edge of Earth’s shadow will project on the eastern (upper left) portion of the moon. At first, the shadow appears very dark, in contrast with the rest of the moon’s disk, still illuminated by partial sunlight.

By 4:19 a.m., Earth’s shadow reaches halfway across the moon’s disk. As more of the moon is immersed within the umbra, colors within the shadow become noticeable, from sunlight which has passed through Earth’s atmosphere and bent into Earth shadow toward the moon. The inner portion of Earth’s shadow is typically reddish in color, for the same reason that sunrises and sunsets appear reddened, and skies appear blue.

Soon after 4:30 a.m., watch for Saturn, just risen in the east-southeast, 32 degrees to the lower left of Mars, and 44 degrees to the lower left of Jupiter; and Altair, just risen about 10 degrees north of east.

Total eclipse begins at 4:52 a.m., when the moon becomes completely immersed within the umbra. At that time, the moon will be just north of due west, and 22 degrees up. The view will be stunning some 10 minutes earlier, while a narrowing bright crescent of sunlight still illuminates the west-southwest (lower) edge of the moon.

Near the start of total eclipse at 4:52 a.m., expect a large range of color and brightness on the moon’s disk. The outer edge of Earth’s shadow might be bluish or yellowish, with the inner portion a darker rusty or grey. Check against Danjon’s 5-point scale (L = 0 to L = 4) if you would like to rate and report the darkness and color of this lunar eclipse. Now is also the best time to use your binoculars to easily observe the Beehive star cluster, just 4 degrees to the lower right of the moon.

Astronomical twilight begins at 5:18 a.m., when the sun is 18 degrees below the eastern horizon. If you’re in a dark place, this is the best time for viewing the Milky Way. Look for the Cygnus Star Cloud about 20 degrees up in the east-northeast, within the Summer Triangle. Binoculars resolve the cloud into many stars! Look also for Saturn 9 degrees up in the east-southeast to southeast, 32 degrees to the lower left of Mars, and 25 degrees to the lower left of Antares. Arcturus will be just 15 degrees south of overhead.

Deepest eclipse occurs at 5:30 a.m., when the moon will be 10 degrees north of due west and just 14 degrees above the horizon.

As morning twilight continues to brighten, the totally eclipsed moon might fade into invisibility, depending on how dark the Earth’s shadow is during this eclipse. During some past total lunar eclipses, such as one I saw in December 1963, such little sunlight made it through our atmosphere into Earth’s shadow that the moon almost completely disappeared, even when high in a dark sky. That eclipse was preceded by a major volcanic eruption in Indonesia.

Total eclipse ends at 6:08 a.m., when the moon will be 15 degrees north of west, and just 7 degrees up. Jupiter will then be almost due south, 39 degrees up. Even if the totally eclipsed moon had previously faded into twilight, the moon partially emerged from Earth’s shadow may become visible again before it finally sets. In theory, someone on a high peak near Palm Springs would be able to view the sun and a partially eclipsed moon, simultaneously on opposite horizons, at 6:46 a.m.

If you miss the total lunar eclipse on Jan. 31, another will be visible from the Coachella Valley in just less than a year—during convenient evening hours. On Jan. 20, 2019, a 3.3-hour encounter of moon with Earth’s umbral shadow will begin at 7:34 p.m. PST, including a 62-minute totality starting at 8:41 p.m.

On Friday, Jan. 5, I will present a summary of the coming year’s sky events. The talk will be held at the Portola Community Center, 45480 Portola Ave., in Palm Desert. Doors open at 6:30 p.m. for refreshments, and the talk begins at 7 p.m.

The website of the Astronomical Society of the Desert at www.astrorx.org has a listing of our evening star parties at two locations. The primary, more accessible location is at the visitor center of the Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains National Monument (on Highway 74, within four miles south of Highway 111 in Palm Desert). A session is scheduled there on Saturday, Jan. 20, from 5 to 8 p.m. Sawmill Trailhead, our high-altitude site (4,000 feet—wear warm clothes), will have a star party starting at dusk on Saturday, Jan. 13. The website includes maps and directions for both locations. Star parties can be cancelled in poor observing weather. See also the link to “Impromptu Star Parties.”

Also, check out the Sky’s the Limit Observatory and Nature Center in Twentynine Palms, at skysthelimit29.org.

To help you plan evening or morning planet viewing sessions during the year 2018, below is Jeffrey Hunt’s two-page graphic summary of moon and planet setting and rising times, relative to times of sunset and sunrise, exact for Palm Springs.

Wishing you clear skies!

Robert C. Victor was a staff astronomer at Abrams Planetarium at Michigan State University. He is now retired and enjoys providing sky watching opportunities for a variety of groups in the Coachella Valley. Robert D. Miller did graduate work in planetarium science and later astronomy and computer science at Michigan State University and remains active in research and public outreach in astronomy. Dr. Jeffrey L. Hunt, a retired planetarium director now living in the Chicago area, has taught astronomy and sky watching to all ages. He studied astronomy education at Abrams Planetarium at Michigan State University. Jeff writes an astronomy blog at jeffreylhunt.wordpress.com and can be followed on Twitter at @jeff_hunt.

Published in Astronomy

Spectacular events in September include a close pairing of a waning crescent moon and Venus at dawn on Sept. 10—and a total lunar eclipse in the early evening on Sept. 27.

Venus now rises before the sun, and has become a spectacular morning “star” in the east before dawn. Venus reaches its greatest brilliance this year in the third week of September. Now through mid-October, the crescent phase of Venuscan be seen with just a pair of binoculars—just find Venus on any morning before sunup, and then eliminate the planet’s glare against a darkened sky by simply keeping track of it until sunrise or longer. The mornings of Sept. 10 and Oct. 8, with Venus near a crescent moon, are excellent opportunities to easily locate and observe Venus in the daytime.

Ranking next in brightness after Venus these morningsare the blue-white Dog Star Sirius in the southeast, and yellow Capella northwest of overhead. Look for the Winter Hexagon, in clockwise order from its lowest member: Sirius, Procyon, Pollux (and nearby Castor, not shown on the map), Capella, Aldebaran and Rigel. Folks checking the eastern sky regularly about an hour before sunrise can watch for the first appearances—called heliacal risings—of planets and first-magnitude stars. Regulus and Jupiter will emerge by mid-September.

During Venus’ reign as “morning star” through March 2016, the moon passes by the planet in our skies seven times. The first of these monthly events will be on Sept. 10, when, one hour before sunrise, Venuswill gleam in the eastern sky just 4 degrees to the upper right of a 7-percent sunlit crescent moon, graced by earthshine illuminating its upper non-sunlit side. About 6 degrees to the moon’s lower left is dim red Mars, and 9 degrees farther to the lower left is Regulus, heart of Leo, the Lion. Within 15 minutes later, look 6 to 7 degrees to the lower left of Regulus for Jupiter, just rising. The entire span of objects from Venus to Jupiter takes up just 23 degrees.

Venus on the morning of Sept. 10 appears three-quarters of an arcminute in diameter, compared to the moon’s 30 arcminutes, or half a degree. So viewed through a telescope at 40-power, Venus will appear as large as the moon does to unaided eye! The crescent Venus, then 18 percent sunlit and nearing greatest brilliancy, will be very striking. As morning twilight brightens, the crescent Venus will be resolvable even with 7-power binoculars, and easy to find 4-5 degrees to the moon’s upper right. Predawn or daytime, Thursday, Sept. 10, will be an impressive morning for outdoor astronomy!

Evenings: Golden Arcturus in the west, and blue-white Vega nearly overhead, shine as the brightest stars at dusk. Altair and Deneb complete the Summer Triangle with Vega. The moon can be followed one hour after sunset daily from Sept. 15-28, as it waxes from a thin crescent, through first-quarter phase (half full and 90 degrees east of the sun), to one day past full. Steady Saturn remains in view in the southwest at dusk, and appears not far from the reddish twinkling first-magnitude star Antares, heart of the Scorpion, and outshines that star by half a magnitude. Through a telescope, we get fine views of Saturn’s rings.

On Sept. 15, the moon will be 3 degrees up in the west-southwest 45 minutes after sunset, with Spicavisible in binoculars 3 degrees to moon’s lower left.

For the next 12 evenings, look nightly for the moon within an hour after sunset, and watch it change its phase (fraction illuminated) and move toward the place where it has an encounter with Earth’s shadow on Sept. 27.

On Friday, Sept. 18, an hour after sunset, the crescent moon is in the southwest, with Saturn just 2 degrees to its lower left. Note the red supergiant star Antares, heart of the Scorpion, twinkling 12 degrees farther to the left of Saturn, and a little lower.

The next evening, Saturday, Sept. 19, the fat crescent moon is 9 degrees nearly directly above Antares, while Saturn is 12 degrees to the right of the other two bodies, forming an isosceles triangle. On Sunday evening, Sept. 20, the moon is in the south-southwest one hour after sunset, 17 degrees to the upper left of Antares, and 87 degrees (nearly a quarter of a circle) east of the sun. This evening, the moon is nearly at first-quarter phase and appears slightly less than half full.

On Sept. 20, there is just one week to go until a very special full moon: Early in the evening on Sunday, Sept. 27, there will be a total eclipse of the harvest moon. The partial eclipse will already be under way as the moon rises in the east, just before sunset. Excessive media hype will be given to this eclipse, because it coincides with a so-called “Supermoon,” the closest moon of the year. The moon will be in total eclipse from 7:11 p.m. to 8:23 p.m. Pacific, and the partial eclipse will end at 9:27 p.m.

This full moon is both the faintest of the year (when deepest in Earth’s shadow at 7:47 p.m.) and the brightest (around 10:23 p.m., when just outside the penumbra of Earth’s shadow). Stand between a bright light and a reflectorized road sign so that the shadow of your head is cast upon the sign, and you’ll see a brilliant halo around your head’s shadow. The moon’s surface reflects light in the same manner as the reflectorized sign—very strongly back toward the direction of the light source.

On the next few evenings after the eclipse, you can witness moonrise nightly until it occurs too late for convenient viewing. By Oct. 2, moonrise occurs nearly four hours after sunset.

You can also convenientlyobserve the moon daily about one hour before sunrise beginning Sept. 28, the morning after the eclipse, through Oct. 11. On Oct. 2, the moon will occult Aldebaran after sunrise, covering and uncovering the star at about 6:44 a.m. and 7:18 a.m. in the Coachella Valley—both events visible through a telescope.

Be sure to check the schedule of monthly star parties, observing sessions for special events, lectures and more from the Astronomical Society of the Desert at www.astrorx.org. Also: Subscribe to the Sky Calendar online, at www.abramsplanetarium.org/skycalendar.

Robert C. Victor was a staff astronomer at Abrams Planetarium at Michigan State University. He is now retired and enjoys providing skywatching opportunities for school children in and around Palm Springs. Robert D. Miller, who provided the twilight charts and the planet orbit charts, did graduate work in planetarium science and later astronomy and computer science at Michigan State University and remains active in research and public outreach in astronomy.

Published in Astronomy

Few people will choose to arise early to catch the start of the lunar eclipse on Saturday morning, April 4, when the spring’s first full moon begins to enter the umbra, or dark central core, of Earth’s shadow at 3:16 a.m. local time.

For the next 1.7 hours, more and more of the moon will be immersed in the Earth’s circular dark shadow, until the start of the total eclipse at 4:58 a.m. Even before then, the rusty color typical of the moon in deep eclipse should be noticed—at least in the lower part of the moon’s disk, closer to the center of Earth’s shadow. Totality lasts less than five minutes, as the northern (upper) edge of the moon barely passes within the outer edge of Earth’s umbra. There should be a pronounced difference in color and brightness between the top and bottom edges of the moon.

Totality ends by 5:03 a.m., after which the moon will gradually emerge from the shadow, with the eclipse concluding at 6:45 a.m. From the Coachella Valley, the moon sets several minutes before then, cutting off our view.

If you prefer to watch this early-morning eclipse for just an hour, I recommend from 4:30 until 5:30 a.m., centering on the deepest eclipse at 5 a.m. At mid-totality, the moon will be quite dim compared to a normal full moon, and observers in dark locations will get a spectacular view of the Milky Way.

Other bright objects of April mornings: Spica will be just 10 degrees to the upper left of the moon at mid-eclipse on April 4, with golden Arcturus high to their upper right. The next morning, on Easter Sunday, April 5, Spica will appear within 4 degrees below the moon, and on April 8, the moon will appear within 2 degrees to the upper right of Saturn, and 10 degrees to the upper right of twinkling Antares, the red supergiant star marking the scorpion’s heart. The waning gibbous moon moves through the predawn Milky Way April 9-11, and by April 12, it has passed last quarter phase and appears slightly less than half full. The last easy view of the waning crescent will be low in the east an hour before sunup on April 16, with another chance for binocular users a half-hour before sunrise on April 17, only 30 hours before the new moon.

The brightest “stars” in evening mid-twilight: In order of brilliance, they are: Venus, in the west to west-northwest; Jupiter, passing just south of overhead around midmonth; Sirius, in the southwest sky, bluish and twinkling, heading lower as the month progresses; Mercury, emerging from superior conjunction beyond the sun on April 9 to appear very low in the west-northwest to lower right of Venus starting around April 18; Arcturus,in the east-northeast to east, higher as month progresses; and Capella, high in the northwest.

This is a good month to follow the motion of Venus against background stars. During April 9-11, Venus passes within three degrees south of the Pleiades, or Seven Sisters star cluster,an especially beautiful sight for binoculars! On April 16-22, Venus passes Aldebaran and the Hyades cluster, those stars together making up the “V”-shaped head of Taurus, the Bull. Meanwhile Jupiter lingers within 5-6 degrees east of the Beehive all month. Use binoculars to find that star cluster.

On April 19, 40 minutes after sunset, the thin young crescent, 32 hours past new, will be low in the west to west-northwest. Binoculars may show Mercurywithin 8 degrees to the moon’s lower right; and dim Mars within 4 degrees to the upper left of Mercury, and within 5 degrees to the lower right of the moon. This is the same night Venuspasses closest north (7 degrees to the upper right) of Aldebaran. On April 20, the lovely crescent moon will be almost directly below Venus, within 9 degrees to the lower right of Aldebaran, and 9 degrees to the lower left of the Pleiades. On April 21, the moon climbs to 5 degrees to the upper left of Aldebaran, while Venus shines within 8 degrees to their upper right. Far to their lower right, dim Mars glows only 1.5 degrees to upper left of bright Mercury.

On Apr. 22, Betelgeuse, shoulder of Orion, is 10 degrees south (to the lower left) of the crescent moon, while Mercury and Mars appear closest to each other, 1.3 degrees apart, with fainter Mars to the lower left. This is the first evening emerging Mercury is higher than sinking Mars. They’ll be 2 degrees apart on April 23, while the moon is midway between Betelgeuseand Pollux, brighter of Gemini twins. On April 24, the fat crescent moon exits the winter hexagon nearly halfway from Procyon to Pollux. On April 25, the first-quarter moon, half full, is 9 degrees to the lower right of Jupiter.

On April 26, the moon is in waxing gibbous phase, 8 degrees to Jupiter’s lower left, and on the next night, April 27, it appears 4 degrees south of Regulus, heart of Leo, the Lion.

On April 30, Mercury passes within two degrees south of the Pleiades. (Use binoculars to see the cluster low in twilight so late in April.)

Mid-April is a good time to start keeping a checklist of bright stars seen each evening. Many bright stars are gathered in the western sky, including the huge winter hexagon. Striking changes in the visibility of stars will occur in the next several weeks, as a result of the Earth’s revolution around the sun. An observer’s log can be downloaded here.

The Astronomical Society of the Desert will host a public star party on Saturday, April 25, from 8 to 10 p.m. at the Visitor Center of the Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains National Monument, on Highway 74. For more information and directions, visit www.astrorx.org.

Robert Victor was a staff astronomer at Abrams Planetarium at Michigan State University. He is now retired and enjoys providing skywatching opportunities for school children in and around Palm Springs.

Published in Astronomy

There are two eclipses in October 2014!

The first is a total lunar eclipse, in the predawn hours of Wednesday, Oct. 8. You’ll want to set your alarm when you turn in for the night on Tuesday.

Here are the times for the various stages of the Oct. 8 lunar eclipse for the Pacific time zone, with the moon’s position in Palm Springs.

  • Moon enters umbra at 2:15 a.m. (moon’s azimuth is at 227 degrees; altitude is 52 degrees).
  • Total eclipse begins at 3:25 a.m. (245°; 41°).
  • Deepest eclipse is at 3:55 a.m. (251°; 35°).
  • Total eclipse ends at 4:24 a.m. (256°; 29°).
  • Moon leaves umbra at 5:34 a.m. (267°; 16°).

During totality in Palm Springs, Uranus (magnitude 5.7) should be visible in binoculars nearly 1 degree to the left or lower left of the center of the eclipsed moon. A medium to high power telescope reveals the planet’s disk, 3.7 arcseconds across.

October’s second eclipse is a partial solar event, in the afternoon on Thursday, Oct. 23.

A solar eclipse can be viewed indirectly, by looking at a projected image. Take a postcard or 3-by-5-inch index card; puncture a small pencil point hole in the center of the card; and allow the projected image of the sun to fall on a second white card, held 3 or 4 feet away, in the shadow of the first card. You can improve the view by using a long cardboard box: Cut a large hole at one end, and cover that hole with the first index card with the small puncture hole. Then tape a sheet of white paper inside the box at the opposite end, to serve as a screen.

You can also stand in the shade of a tree and look for projected images of the eclipsed sun, on the ground or on a sheet you have spread on the ground, or on the side of a light-colored building. Try this method a few days before the eclipse, at the same time of day, and look for round projected images of the full disk of the sun.

Groups organizing a solar eclipse watch can also order a quantity of solar eclipse viewers for participants. Both hand-held safe eclipse viewers and eclipse glasses (to be worn like regular eyeglasses) are available from Rainbow Symphony. Both styles are identically priced and employ the same filter materials. The minimum quantity for those items is 25, at 85 cents each, with bigger discounts for larger quantities. To order, go to www.rainbowsymphonystore.com, and click on eclipse shades.

The viewers can be kept for use during future eclipses! In the next 10 years, there will be three more solar eclipses visible from California. These filters can also be used to check for sunspots; very large ones would be visible through the filter.

In Palm Springs, the eclipse on Thursday, Oct. 23, begins at 2:12 p.m., as the moon’s disk makes first contact with the upper right edge of the sun’s disk. Greatest eclipse for Palm Springs occurs at 3:31 p.m., as the moon’s disk covers the upper right portion of the sun’s disk—45 percent of the solar diameter, or 33 percent of the disk area. The eclipse ends at 4:41 p.m., as the moon’s disk makes last contact with the upper left edge of the solar disk.

During the eclipse in Palm Springs, the sun will be sinking through the southwestern sky, at an altitude ranging from 38 degrees at the start of the event, to 15 degrees at the end.

Robert C. Victor was a staff astronomer at Abrams Planetarium at Michigan State University. He is now retired and enjoys providing skywatching opportunities for school children in and around Palm Springs.

Published in Astronomy

April 2014 at dusk: Jupiter is clearly the brightest “star” in evening twilight during April. Mars briefly equals or slightly outshines Sirius as the red planet passes opposition and makes its closest approach to Earth in the second week. Next in apparent brightness are Arcturus and Capella, high in the sky and easily seen. Slightly fainter Saturn rises in the east-southeast around mid-twilight at month’s end.

In the eastern half of the sky, Regulus, Arcturus and (barely) Mars are already up and ascending on April 1. As Earth passes between Mars and the sun on April 8, Mars is at opposition to the sun and visible all night. The same alignment occurs with the star Spica just five days later.

The moon forms striking gatherings with stars and planets during the first half of April. The waxing crescent will be a beautiful sight during the first few evenings in April as it climbs higher each night.

On Thursday evening, April 3, the moon will appear close to the lower right of Aldebaran, eye of Taurus, and among the stars along the right side of the “V” of the Hyades star cluster forming the Bull’s face. At 8:17 p.m., as seen from the Coachella Valley, the leading dark edge of the moon will occult, or cover up, the fourth-magnitude star Delta-3 Tauri, causing the star to suddenly blink out. The occultation will be best seen with binoculars or a telescope. Just more than an hour later, about 9:25 p.m., the star will reappear at the bright edge of the moon; it will not be as easy to observe the exact moment of its reappearance.

On Sunday evening, April 6, the moon, nearing first-quarter phase, passes 5 degrees south of Jupiter.On the next evening, the moon will be widely south of Pollux, one of the Gemini Twins, and on Thursday, April 10, it will pass widely south of Regulus, heart of Leo, the Lion.

During all of those evenings, the waxing moon will be tracking southof the ecliptic, or “below” Earth’s orbital plane—but that will come to an end late on the night of Monday, April 14, as the full moon returns close enough to our orbit plane to be completely immersed in the umbra, or dark central core of Earth’s shadow—causing a total lunar eclipse! (See below for information on a public viewing event.) The eclipse begins as the moon begins to enter the Earth’s umbra at 10:58 p.m.

The Earth’s diameter is nearly 3.7 times that of the moon, but the Earth’s shadow during this eclipse will appear only 2.7 times as large as the lunar disk. That’s large enough for the moon to easily fit, with plenty of room to spare!

As more of the moon is immersed in Earth’s shadow, the reddish color of the shadow will become noticeable. The reddish illumination is sunlight which has passed through the Earth’s atmosphere and gotten refracted into the Earth’s shadow. The total eclipse begins at 12:07 a.m., early on Tuesday morning, April 15.

The 78 minutes of total eclipse is a perfect time to use binoculars to locate the asteroids Vesta (magnitude 5.7) and Ceres (7.0), at peak brightness and just 2.4 degrees apart in Virgo, an easy star-hop from the dimmed moon and Spica. These asteroids are the destinations of the Dawn space mission; Dawn has already visited Vesta and is on its way to Ceres, arriving there in 2015.

Deepest eclipse occurs at 12:46 a.m., when the northern edge of the moon comes closest to the center of Earth’s shadow. Total eclipse ends at 1:25 a.m., and the moon’s withdrawal from the umbra will be complete at 2:33 a.m.

April 2014 at dawn: Venus continues to dominate the morning sky. Find it in the east-southeast in morning mid-twilight, drifting farther north as the month progresses. A telescope shows Venus in gibbous phase, fattening from 54 to 66 percent full, but shrinking in apparent size as it recedes from Earth. Saturn is a steady yellow “star” sinking slowly in the southwest. To Saturn’s lower right are bright reddish Mars and blue-white first-magnitude Spica, but they drop below the west to west-southwest horizon before month’s end, after passing opposition on April 8 and 13, respectively.

Other bright objects in the morning sky are golden Arcturus, well up in the west to upper right of Mars and Spica; reddish Antares, heart of Scorpius, in the south-southwest to southwest; and the Summer Triangle of Vega, Altair and Deneb high in the east, topped by its brightest member, Vega.

April’s waning moon, just hours after the lunar eclipse, is still close to Spica and Mars at dawn on the 15th. Early on the morning of the 17th, the moon passes closely south of Saturn, and on the 18th, the gibbous moon passes widely north of Antares. The last-quarter moon on the morning of April 22 will be 5 degrees northof the ecliptic, near stars marking the head of Capricornus, the Sea-goat. On the mornings of April 25 and 26, the crescent moon will appear near Venus. The new moon will occur on April 29.

Astronomical Society of the Desert Viewing

The Astronomical Society of the Desert will host a public viewing session for the total lunar eclipse on Monday night, April 14, starting at 10:30 p.m., at the Coachella Valley Preserve, 29200 Thousand Palms Canyon Road. Members will bring their telescopes to provide enhanced views of the eclipsed moon, as well as the three bright outer planets—Mars, Jupiter and Saturn.

Folks coming to the viewing session are encouraged to bring binoculars to enjoy the eclipse and the deep sky objects which will become visible as the sky darkens while the moon is increasingly covered by Earth's shadow.

During the total phase of the lunar eclipse, places far enough away from brightly lit cities will enjoy very dark skies. Vesta and Ceres, the two asteroids being visited by the Dawn Space Mission, will be easily seen in binoculars during the total eclipse.

For more information and directions, go to www.astrorx.org or call 760-771-4607. Bring the kids; it’s a great educational experience for them!

Robert C. Victor was a staff astronomer at the Abrams Planetarium at Michigan State University. He is now retired and enjoys providing skywatching opportunities for school children in and around Palm Springs.

Published in Astronomy